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Are you a coffee enthusiast who loves to experiment with different coffee drinks? In this post, we're unraveling the key differences between two classic coffee drinks - espresso and latte. Get ready to learn about the brewing methods, taste profiles, and caffeine content of these two drinks. Let's dive in!

Espresso vs. Latte: A Brief Overview

Espresso and latte are both coffee beverages made with espresso as their base ingredient. However, there are some key differences between the two in terms of preparation, texture, and taste.

Espresso is brewed by pushing hot water and pressure through very fine coffee beans. This process results in a rich, bold flavor and a thicker texture compared to other types of coffee. The volume of a typical shot of espresso is usually around 1-2 ounces, but it packs a bold caffeine punch in that small size.

On the other hand, a latte is a milk-infused espresso beverage that consists of approximately 60% steamed milk with a small amount of milk foam on top. The process of preparing a latte involves frothing the milk before adding it to the espresso, creating a smoother, creamier texture. A latte can be made with various types of milk, but some froth better than others. The serving size of a latte typically ranges between 8-12 ounces, making it a larger and more diluted coffee beverage compared to an espresso.

Differences between espresso and latte can be summarized as follows:

  • Preparation: Espresso is brewed using hot water and pressure, while latte involves the addition of steamed milk and milk foam.
  • Volume: Espresso is generally served in 1-2 ounce shots, whereas a latte ranges from 8-12 ounces in size.
  • Strength: Espresso has a more robust and intense flavor due to its higher concentration of coffee, while a latte has a milder taste due to the milk dilution.
  • Texture: Espresso has a thicker consistency, while a latte has a creamier texture due to the frothed milk.
  • Caffeine Content: Espresso contains more caffeine per ounce than a latte.

It is essential to note that while all lattes contain espresso, not all espresso beverages contain milk, such as a traditional straight shot or macchiato. In summary, both espresso and latte share a similar coffee foundation but exhibit varied flavors, consistencies, and sizes due to the differences in their preparation and ingredients.

Espresso Fundamentals

Espresso is a concentrated coffee drink that is widely regarded as the base for many popular coffee beverages. It has unique characteristics and processes that set it apart from other coffee brewing methods.

Extraction Process

The extraction process of espresso involves pushing hot water through finely ground coffee beans under high pressure. This results in a concentrated and intense coffee shot, which typically measures 2-3 ounces. The resulting drink can be served as a standalone espresso, or it can be the base for other coffee beverages like lattes, cappuccinos, and macchiatos.


One distinctive feature of espresso is its crema - a thin layer of creamy, golden-brown froth. Crema is formed when natural oils and gases in the coffee beans are forced out by the high pressure of the extraction process. It is an essential element of a well-made espresso, adding both to the visual appeal and the flavor profile of the drink.

Caffeine Content

In comparison to other coffee drinks, the caffeine content in an espresso shot is notably higher. This is due to their concentrated nature, as opposed to drinks like lattes, which have a larger proportion of milk. However, the serving size is much smaller, meaning that the total caffeine content in a single espresso may be less than in a larger-sized brewed coffee.

Grind Size and Pressure

Grind size and pressure are crucial factors in the espresso-making process. The coffee beans used for espresso should be ground very fine, almost to a powdery consistency. This ensures that the hot water is forced through the ground coffee at the right rate, balancing the extraction time and flavor profile. Pressure plays a vital role in espresso as well. Traditional espresso machines use high pressure, typically around 9 bars, to properly extract the coffee and create crema.

Ristretto and Lungo

Espresso can also be served in variations like ristretto and lungo. A ristretto is a shorter, more concentrated version of an espresso, with less water used during extraction. This results in a more intense flavor and higher caffeine content per ounce. Conversely, a lungo is a longer, less concentrated version of an espresso, using more water for extraction, resulting in a milder flavor and lower caffeine content per ounce. These variations cater to different personal preferences in taste and caffeine levels, showcasing the versatility of espresso as a coffee beverage.

The fundamentals discussed above contribute to the unique features of espresso, setting a solid foundation for an understanding of its characteristics and the distinctions that separate it from other coffee drinks, such as lattes.

Latte Fundamentals

Milk Proportions

A latte is a popular coffee beverage that combines a single or double shot of espresso with steamed milk and a layer of frothed milk on top. One of the main characteristics of a latte is its milk proportion, which is typically around 60% of the drink's volume. This leads to a larger beverage, often starting from 8 oz and up, in comparison to a 2-3 oz espresso.

Foam and Frothed Milk

The foam and froth in a latte are essential components that contribute to its creamy texture and pleasing aesthetics. The steamed milk used in a latte is important, as it not only adds a smooth and rich layer, but also contributes to the airy, frothy milk foam that sits atop the drink. This foam is created by using a milk frother or a steam wand on an espresso machine, which injects air into the milk, causing it to expand and take on a velvety consistency.

Different types of milk can be used in a latte, with some frothing better than others. Ideally, whole milk is preferred for its fat content, which lends itself well to achieving the desired foam. However, alternatives like almond milk, soy milk, or oat milk can also be used, though their foam quality may vary.

Creating a Latte

To create a latte, the process usually involves the following steps:

  1. Preparing espresso: A single or double shot of espresso is brewed using finely ground coffee beans and water.

  2. Steaming and frothing milk: As the espresso is being prepared, milk is steamed using either a milk frother or an espresso machine's steam wand. Steaming raises the temperature of the milk while also generating foam.

  3. Pouring the milk: The steamed milk is gently poured into the espresso, starting with a small amount to mix with the coffee before adding the rest. The way the milk is poured affects the final appearance of the drink, with skilled baristas achieving latte art designs.

  4. Adding the foam: Finally, a spoon is used to scoop the frothy milk foam and layer it on top of the drink, giving the latte its hallmark look and texture.

By following these steps, a beautifully crafted, creamy, and smooth latte can be created - a delightful contrast to a pure and bold espresso.

Variations and Flavorings

Espresso and latte are two popular coffee options, but there are numerous variations and flavorings that can be added to these drinks to create even more choices. In this section, we'll explore some popular variations, including cappuccinos, mocha lattes, and pumpkin spice lattes, along with tips for customizing your drink.


A cappuccino is a well-known variation of the latte, with the primary difference being the thickness of the frothy top layer. Cappuccinos are typically made with equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and foam. They are often served in a smaller 6-ounce cup compared to a latte and sometimes include a sprinkling of cinnamon or cocoa powder on top.

Mocha Latte

A mocha latte is essentially a latte with the addition of chocolate flavoring. Typically, the chocolate is added in the form of cocoa powder or a sweet chocolate syrup, which is mixed in with the steamed milk and espresso. This creates a rich, sweet coffee drink with both the velvety taste of chocolate and the boldness of espresso.

Pumpkin Spice Latte

The pumpkin spice latte is a seasonal favorite that typically becomes popular during the fall months. This flavorful latte variation is made by adding a mixture of pumpkin puree, cinnamon, nutmeg, and other spices to the steamed milk and espresso. The resulting drink is a warm, comforting blend of coffee and autumn spices, often garnished with whipped cream and a sprinkle of cinnamon or pumpkin spice mix.

Furthermore, for those who are looking to take their coffee experience to the next level, investing in a commercial quality espresso machine can be a game-changer. Whether you're a cafe owner, a coffee enthusiast, or someone seeking the perfect brew for customers, having the right machine makes a difference. Dive deep into our commercial espresso machine collection to explore a range of options tailored to suit commercial needs.

Customizing Your Drink

There are countless ways to customize your espresso or latte, depending on your preferences:

  • Adjust the number of shots of espresso to increase or decrease the coffee intensity.
  • Add flavored syrups or powders for a personalized taste, such as caramel, vanilla, or hazelnut.
  • Experiment with different sweeteners or dairy alternatives such as soy, almond, or oat milk.
  • Adjust the ratio of steamed milk and foam to create your preferred texture and mouthfeel.
  • Experiment with various toppings like whipped cream, a dash of cinnamon, or a sprinkle of cocoa powder.

Feel free to mix and match these options to find your perfect coffee drink. Remember, the key to enjoying your espresso, latte, or any coffee variation is finding the right balance of ingredients to match your personal taste preferences.

Comparing Espresso and Latte

Caffeine Comparison

When comparing espresso and latte, one of the factors to consider is the caffeine content. Espresso is a concentrated coffee beverage, usually made using an espresso machine that extracts a small, strong shot (about 1-1.5 ounces) of coffee. A standard espresso shot contains around 63mg of caffeine. On the other hand, a latte is a milk-based coffee beverage made by combining an espresso shot with steamed milk and a layer of milk foam. The caffeine content in a latte is almost equal to the espresso since the volume of coffee used is typically the same. Hence, it would contain about 63mg of caffeine as well.

Calorie Comparison

Calories in these beverages can vary depending on the size and ingredients used. In general, an espresso contains fewer calories than a latte. A single shot of espresso has around 5 calories, while a latte can have anywhere from 100-300 calories, depending on the type and quantity of milk used. The calorie count increases with the addition of sugar, flavored syrups, or whipped cream.

Serving Sizes and Concentration

Espresso and latte differ in serving sizes and concentration. An espresso shot is small, typically 2-3 ounces, whereas a latte is a larger drink, often starting at 8 ounces. The concentration in an espresso is high due to the brewing method and pressure, resulting in the bold and intense flavor. In contrast, a latte has a more mellow and subtle coffee flavor with a creamier texture, thanks to the steamed milk.

Doppio and Brewed Coffee

A doppio is a double shot of espresso, which increases the caffeine content to around 126mg. However, the calorie count remains relatively low, at approximately 10 calories. Compared to brewed coffee, which contains about 95mg of caffeine and only 2 calories per 8 ounces, both espresso and latte have a higher concentration of flavors and, in the case of a latte, more calories due to the added milk.

By understanding the differences between espresso and latte, such as caffeine and calorie content, the serving sizes and concentrations, and comparing them to other options like doppio and brewed coffee, it is easier to make informed decisions about which beverage suits individual preferences or dietary needs.

Preparation Tools

Espresso Machine

An essential tool when it comes to brewing both espresso and latte beverages is the espresso machine. These machines come in various types, such as manual, semi-automatic, and fully automatic. Espresso machines work by pushing hot water through finely ground coffee beans under high pressure, creating a concentrated, robust coffee with a creamy crema on top. This process produces the approximately 1-2 ounces of espresso required for both espresso shots and as the base for a latte.

When selecting an espresso machine, pay attention to factors like brewing pressure (usually measured in bars), temperature control, and ease of use. High-quality machines often come with integrated grinders to ensure a consistent grind size and adjustable settings to fine-tune the brewing process.

Milk Frother

A key element that differentiates a latte from an espresso is the inclusion of steamed and frothed milk. A milk frother is a tool used to create this texture of milk, which is essential in the preparation of a latte. Frothers come in several styles, including handheld devices, electric frothers, and steam wands attached to espresso machines.

For example, to make a latte, you'll need to heat and steam milk, creating microfoam – this is typically achieved using the steam wand on an espresso machine. The process involves introducing air into the milk while heating it, creating a velvety, slightly frothy consistency. A standard latte uses a ratio of about 2 parts steamed milk to 1 part espresso.

On the other hand, if you want to create a cappuccino, the milk frother is utilized more heavily to generate a denser, thicker layer of froth. In a cappuccino, the ratio is equal parts espresso, steamed milk, and microfoam.

When choosing a milk frother, consider factors like ease of use, quality of froth, and ease of cleaning. Handheld and electric frothers are popular choices for those who don't have an espresso machine with a built-in steam wand, while steam wands on machines provide the most control and versatility in creating the perfect milk texture.

To summarize, the espresso machine and milk frother are crucial tools for preparing both espresso and latte beverages. The espresso machine is responsible for creating the intense, concentrated coffee base, while the milk frother helps achieve the desired milk texture, distinguishing a latte from other coffee drinks. Both of these tools are essential for achieving the perfect balance of flavors and textures in each cup.

Popularizing the Espresso and Latte Culture

Coffee Shops

In recent years, the espresso and latte culture has gained popularity worldwide, mainly through the prevalence of coffee shops. These establishments serve as social hubs where people gather not only to enjoy their favorite coffee beverages but also to work, socialize, and relax. Lattes are typically made with espresso, steamed milk, and a small amount of milk foam on top, while espressos are simply coffee beans and water, brewed under high pressure. The volume and taste of lattes differ from espressos due to the higher percentage of milk, making the latte a larger beverage with a more subtle flavor.

Influence of Italian Traditions

The espresso and latte culture owes its origins primarily to Italian traditions. Italy is well-known for its thriving café scene, where coffee is an integral part of daily life. Italians typically start their morning with an espresso or cappuccino, and it's common for people to meet at a local café to enjoy a conversation over a coffee beverage. This tradition has spread across the globe, with coffee shops now embodying the essence of Italian coffee culture.

The Italian influence can be seen not only in the way these drinks are prepared but also in the techniques used by baristas. Espresso machines, for example, were first patented in Italy in the early 20th century, and have since evolved to become a crucial element of coffee culture. The art of frothing milk to create the perfect foam for a latte is also rooted in Italian coffee practices.

In conclusion, the popularization of espresso and latte culture is mainly attributed to the proliferation of coffee shops and the influence of Italian traditions. As these beverages continue to gain traction around the world, it's fascinating to see how the timeless Italian practices have left a lasting impact on contemporary coffee culture.

Making Espresso and Latte at Home

Choosing Quality Ingredients

When making espresso and latte at home, start by selecting the right ingredients. High-quality coffee beans and fresh dairy products are essential for achieving a great taste. Opt for freshly roasted beans and choose whole milk for a richer and creamier texture in your latte.

  • Coffee beans: Explore different roasts and origins to find a flavor profile that suits your preferences
  • Dairy: Whole milk creates creamier lattes, but alternatives like almond or oat milk can be used to accommodate dietary restrictions

Finding the Perfect Grind Size

The grind size plays a crucial role in the quality of your espresso and latte. Espresso requires a fine grind, while lattes may vary depending on the type of coffee maker used. Experiment with different grind sizes to find the one that produces the best results for your setup.

Coffee Type Grind Size
Espresso Fine
Latte Medium to Fine

Mastering the Art

Brewing Espresso

To make a good espresso, you'll need an espresso machine and the following steps:

  1. Measure the proper dose of finely ground coffee (usually between 18-20 grams)
  2. Tamp the coffee grounds evenly in the portafilter
  3. Lock the portafilter in the machine's group head
  4. Start the extraction process, which should take around 30 seconds to pull a double shot (about 2 ounces) of espresso
  5. Monitor the shot using a small cup and stop extraction when you've reached the desired volume

Crafting a Latte

A latte combines espresso with steamed and lightly frothed milk. To make one at home, follow these steps:

  1. Brew two shots of espresso (about 2 ounces) using an espresso machine and pour it into a cup or mug
  2. Steam milk in a separate container, creating a smooth, velvety texture and a small amount of foam
  3. Pour the steamed milk over the espresso, ensuring a 60% milk to espresso ratio (a regular latte is around 8 ounces in total)
  4. Spoon a small dollop of frothed milk on top for a more appealing presentation

Remember, practice is key: hone your skills to create the perfect espresso and latte every time. Enjoy the process of experimenting and discovering new flavors and techniques in the comfort of your home.

Tony Barlow

Tony Barlow

Majesty Coffee Technical Sales Expert - Meet the Team

Tony Barlow, with over a decade of experience in the coffee industry, is the go-to technical sales expert at Majesty Coffee. He's passionate about helping businesses find the right espresso equipment for their needs.

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